শলোমনের প্রজ্ঞা ও সুবিচার সম্পর্কে আলোকপাত করার পূর্বে আমরা দাউদ সম্পর্কে কিছু তথ্য উপস্থাপন করব। এটা অনুধাবণের জন্যে যে- দাউদের দরবারে শলোমন বিচার করার ক্ষমতা ও এক্তিয়ার কেন ও কিভাবে পেলেন।
বাদশা দাউদ নিজে একটা ভীষণ অপরাধ করে ফেলেছিলেন, তিনি তার সৈনিক উরিয়র স্ত্রীকে নিজের করে পেতে তাকে যুদ্ধের সম্মুখ সাঁরিতে স্থাপন করেছিলেন, যেখানে মৃত্যু অবধারিত। আর উরিয়র মৃত্যুর পর তার স্ত্রীকে বিবাহ করেছিলেন। তার এই অপরাধ ন্যায় বিচারক আল্লাহর কাছে গ্রহণযোগ্য ছিল না। তাই তাকে শিক্ষা দিতে জিব্রাইল ও মিকাইল মানুষের বেশে তার নিকট বিচার প্রার্থী হয়েছিল। যাইহোক, নিজের অপরাধের ব্যাপকতা অনুধাবন করে তিনি পরবর্তীতে আর নিজে বিচার কাজ চালাতে সাহস করেননি। এ বিষয়ে Book of Chamis জানায়-
Mindful of what had taken place with the two angels, David ventured not again to execute judgment. He had already nominated a kadhi, who was to adjust in his stead all disputes that might arise, when the angel Gabriel brought him an iron tube with a bell, and said, "Allah has beheld thy diffidence with pleasure, and therefore sends thee this tube and bell, by means of which it will be easy for thee to maintain the law in Israel, and never to pronounce an unjust sentence. Suspend this tube in thy hall of judgment, and hang the bell in the midst thereof: place the accuser on one side of it, and the accused on the other, and always pronounce judgment in favor of him who, on touching the tube, elicits a sound from the bell."
David was greatly delighted at this gift, by means of which he who was in the right was sure to triumph, so that soon no one dared to commit any injustice, since he was certain to be detected by the bell.
One day, however, there came two men before the judgment seat, one of whom maintained that he had given a pearl into the keeping of the other, who now refused to restore it. The defendant, on the other hand, swore that he had already given it back. As usual, David compelled them both, one after the other, to touch the tube; but the bell uttered no sound, so that he did not know which of the two spake truth, and was inclined to doubt the farther virtue of the bell.
But when he had repeatedly directed both to touch the tube, he observed that as often as the accused was to pass the ordeal, he gave his staff to be holden by his antagonist. David now took the staff in his own hand, and sent the accused once more to touch the tube, when instantly the bell began to ring aloud. David then caused the staff to be inspected, and behold, it was hollow, and the pearl in question was concealed within it.
But on account of his thus doubting the value of the tube which Allah had given him, it was again removed to heaven, so that David frequently erred in his decisions, until Solomon, whom his wife Saja, the daughter of Josu, had borne him, aided him with his counsel.
In him David placed implicit confidence, and was guided by him in the most difficult questions, for he had heard in the night of his birth the angel Gabriel exclaim, "Satan's dominion is drawing to its close, for this night a child is born, to whom Iblis and all his hosts, together with all his descendants, shall be subject. The earth, air, and water, with all the creatures that live therein, shall be his servants: he shall be gifted with nine tenths of all the wisdom and knowledge which Allah has granted unto mankind, and understand not only all the languages of men, but those also of beasts and of birds.-(Book of Chamis, by Husein ibn Muhammed.)
যাহোক, আমরা এখন শলোমনের প্রজ্ঞা ও সুবিচারের কয়েকটি নমুনা দেখব। এগুলির কোনটিই তার দরবারে নয় বরং বাদশা দাউদের দরবারে ঘটেছিল।
ঘটনাচক্রে এক মায়ের শিশুটিকে বন্যপশুতে নিয়ে গেল। ঐ রমনী জাগ্রত হয়ে যখন দেখল তার শিশুটি নেই, তখন সে অপর রমনীর শিশুটিকে নিজের কাছে এনে রাখল। উক্ত শিশুটির মাতা জাগ্রত হয়ে দেখল তার শিশুটি অপর রমনীর পাশে ঘুমাচ্ছে। সে শিশুটিকে নিতে গেলে অপর রমনী বাঁধা দিল। সে বলল, ‘এটা আমার সন্তান।’
|শিশু সন্তানের মাতৃত্বের দাবীর বিচার।|
The lawyers were indeed persuaded of Solomon's erudition; nevertheless, hoping to confound him by all manner of subtle questions, and thus to increase their own importance, they accepted David's proposal, and made arrangements for a public examination. But their expectations were disappointed; for, before the last word of any question put to Solomon was yet pronounced, he had already given a striking answer, so that all present firmly believed that the whole matter had been arranged beforehand with his judges, and that this examination was instituted by David merely to recommend Solomon as his worthy successor to the throne.
But Solomon at once effaced this suspicion, when, at the close of this examination he arose, and said to his judges, "You have exhausted yourselves in subtleties in the hope of manifesting your superiority over me before this great assembly; permit me now, also, to put to you a very few simple questions, the solution of which needs no manner of study, but only a little intellect and understanding. Tell me what is Every thing, and what is Nothing. Who is Something, and who is less than Nothing?"
Solomon waited long; and when the judge whom he had addressed was not able to answer, he said, "Allah, the Creator, is Every thing, but the world, the creature, is Nothing. The believer is Something, but the hypocrite is less than Nothing."
Turning to another, Solomon inquired, "Which are the most in number, and which the fewest? What is sweetest, and what most bitter?" but as the second judge also was unable to find a proper answer to these questions, Solomon said, "The most numerous are the doubters, and they who possess a perfect assurance of faith are the fewest in number. The sweetest is the possession of a virtuous wife, excellent children, and a respectable competency; but a wicked wife, undutiful children, and poverty are the most bitter."
Finally, Solomon put the following questions to a third judge: "Which is the vilest, and which the most beautiful? What the most certain, and what the least so?" But these questions also remained unanswered, until Solomon said, "The vilest thing is when a believer apostatizes, and the most beautiful when a sinner repents. The most certain thing is Death and the Last Judgment, and the most uncertain, Life and the Fate of the Soul after the resurrection. You perceive," he then continued, "it is not the oldest and most learned that are always the wisest. True wisdom is neither of years nor of learned books, but only of Allah, the All-wise."
Solomon excited by his words the greatest astonishment in all that were present; and the heads of the people exclaimed with one voice, "Blessed be the Lord, who has given to our king a son who in wisdom surpasses all the men of his time, and who is worthy one day to sit on the throne of his father!" -(Book of Chamis, by Husein ibn Muhammed.)
এর উত্তরে বলা যায় যে, কোন রায় যদি শরীয়ত সম্মত ইজতিহাদের উপর ভিত্তিশীল এবং ইজতিহাদের মূল নীতির অধীন হয়, তবে অন্য বিচারকের পক্ষে তা ভঙ্গ করা জায়েজ নয়। কেননা এই নীতি প্রবর্তিত হলে মহা অনর্থ দেখা দেবে। তবে যদি রায় প্রদানকারী স্বয়ং ইজতিহাদের মূলনীতি অনুযায়ী রায় দানের পর ইজতিহাদের দৃষ্টিকোন থেকে দেখেন যে, ১ম রায় ও ১ম ইজতিহাদে ভুল হয়ে গেছে, তবে তা পরিবর্তণ করা শুধু জায়েজ নয় বরং উত্তম।
বি:দ্র: শলোমনের দরবারের কিছু বিচার অবশ্য ইহুদিদের রাব্বানিক সাহিত্য ও অন্যান্য পুস্তকে পাওয়া যায়। একটি উদাহরণ এখানে দেয়া হল--
Asmodeus brought before Solomon from under the earth a man with two heads, who, being unable to return to his native place, married a woman from Jerusalem. She bore him seven sons, six of whom resembled the mother, while one resembled the father in having two heads.
After their father's death, the son with two heads claimed two shares of the inheritance, arguing that he was two men; while his brothers contended that he was entitled to one share only.
They appealed to Solomon, whose sagacity enabled him to decide that the son with two heads was only one man; and the king consequently rendered judgment in favor of the other six brothers" (comp. "R. E. J." xlv. 305 et seq.).